Basic principles of affective disorders classification under ICD-10 and DSM-IV are discussed. Moreover, diagnostic categories as defined in both these systems are compared.
Development of the concept of this recently distinguished disorder is described, and its essential epidemiological, diagnostic and clinical characteristics are presented in the paper. (Ed.)
Major data are presented showing the position of the seasonal affective disorder (SAD) among all the other affective disorder s, its clinical specificity, as well as principles of phototherapy. (Ed.)
The role of biological factors in pathogenesis of affective disorders is discussed. The genetic predisposition plays an important role in etiology of bipolar disorder. The searches for disturbances of central neurotransmitter systems in depressive syndrome are in progress. Their nature remains unknown. The presence of LHP A axis abnormalities enriches the diathesis-stress hypothesis.
Contemporary studies and recommendations concerning relapse prevention in unipolar and bipolar affective disorder are outlined. (Ed.)
Basic principles of treatment with various antidepressants, as well as ways of crucial decision making in the treatment of depression are discussed. (Ed.)
The place of ECT, major indications, and principles of ECT administration are discussed in the paper. (Ed.)
The paper deals with the theoretical rationale and practical application of cognitive therapy in the treatment of affective disorders. (Ed.)
The paper presents the Hoff criteria on which the diagnosis of the so-called abnormal reaction to alcohol should be based. Views of Polish authors (from the 1960s to this day) on the reaction in question and on its effect on the accountability assessment are reviewed.
The treatment with botulin toxin A has been recognized in recent years as a highly effective medication method in focal dystonias and hemifacial spasm. The list of potential new indications to treatment with this pharmaceutical has been currently extended. The author presents the relevant state-of-the-art knowledge, supporting it with his own experience from application of the drug in clinical practice over a few years' period.
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of learning abilities in the differential diagnosis of depression and diffuse brain damage. Two groups of patients were studied. The first group consisted of 21 patients (14 females, 7 males) with a moderate major depression. The second group consisted of 21 subjects (13 females, 8 males) with a mild diffuse brain damage. Results demonstrate that a quantitative assessment of learning skills is rather not helpful in the differential diagnosis. Both groups were similar as regards both the recognition task scores and overall performance level on learning tests. However, qualitative intergroup differences were found. Brain-damaged patients, as compared to depressed subjects, showed a significantly more marked recency effect in the visuo-spatial learning test and made more false-positive errors in the auditory-verbal recognition testing. The findings are discussed in terms of the retrieval process impairment and motivational deficits.
The paper presents a review of recent studies on cognitive disorders in patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia, in terms of the type of disorder and its impact on the course and clinical picture of schizophrenia. Research conducted so far indicates that no single pattern of cognitive disorder s can be considered as typical of the whole schizophrenic population. According to many authors, severe cognitive deficits are characteristic, above all of patients with clear negative symptoms, with a c.n.s. damage confirmed by neuroimaging methods, and with a poor premorbid adjustment. Moreover, such cognitive disorder s (as well as a low pre-morbid IQ) are associated with a poor prognosis.