In the study aimed at evaluation of the FBS (Frankfurter-Befindlichkeits-Skala) usefulness, participants were 90 schizophrenic patients differing in clinical characteristics. The FBS scale and three other alternative self-rating scales (the P-D scale by von Zerssen, and two simple scales of visual analogies) were administered in this group twice at the interval of about 48 hours. For comparison purposes, three scales of clinical assessment (BPRS, KOSS-C, KOSS-W) were used as well. Obtained results indicate satisfactory reliability, i.e. internal consistency of the FBS (Cronbach alpha = 0.96), and its test-retest stability (tauB = 0.86). Sufficiently high correlations were found between the FBS and each of the alternative self-rating scales used, especially the similar PD-S (tauB = 0.65). Somewhat weaker, but significant correlations with a clinician's assessment (particularly as regards productive symptomatology of the schizophrenic syndrome) and with same clinical variables (meaningful correlations with stage of the illness), as well as an interesting factorial structure of the self-rating scale suggest that the latter may serve as a valid diagnostic tool complementary to clinical evaluation. The scale may be administered to patients sufficiently motivated to fill in the questionnaire, or to those who can be motivated to do so. A shortened version of the scale with good psychometric characteristics may be more convenient. Our findings allow to conclude that the FBS is a useful diagnostic instrument, supplementing clinical assessment of schizophrenic patients' mental status.
The Social Functioning Scale (SFS) developed by Birchwood is presented in the paper, as well as results of a study using a Polish version of the SFS in a group of 53 schizophrenic patients with a 15-year history. The scale was found to be useful for diagnosing deficits of the patients' functioning and for planning of the rehabilitation procedure. However, its usefulness in epidemiological studies seems to be limited.
The aim of the study was to evaluate reliability, validity and practical applicability of three social functioning scales included in the set of the DSM-IV multiaxial diagnostic instruments. For these purposes 35 schizophrenic patients currently not hospitalized were assessed twice at the interval of 48 hours by two diagnosticians using the three scales under study and 4 alternative tools (of different theoretical assumptions and construction) evaluating various aspects of the patient's functioning and severity of his symptoms. Reliability of the scales under study turned out to be satisfactory. Moreover, obtained evidence indicates a satisfactory, differentiated validity of the SOFAS and GAF scales for the evaluation of extra-familial, socio-interpersonal areas of the patient's functioning, and of the GARF scale – for the assessment of functioning in the family relationships. As regards the two scales characterized by a very similar application and psychometric properties, the assessment using SOFAS seems to be less doubtful than that by means of the GAF scale.
The paper presents the development of a Polish version of the scale devised by F.-M. Stark for assessment of the patient-therapist relationship. Results of a study confirming satisfactory reliability and validity of the Polish adaptation of the tool are discussed, and possibilities of its application are outlined. (eds.)
Two simple tests designed for the elderly are presented in the paper. The EBAS DEP scale by Allen et al. may be useful in screening for depressive disorders, while the AMT scale by McLennan et al. may be used for a rapid assessment of cognitive processes.
The aim of the paper is to present the Bech-Rafaelsen Scale and to overview the literature on the usefulness of the HAM-D, MADRS and BRMES in the assessment of depressive disorders severity, as well as on validity, reliability and sensitivity of these instruments.
A concept by Ch. Scharfetter proposing five dimensions of self-awareness and their disorders in schizophrenia is outlined. Moreover, a Polish adaptation of the Ego-Psychopathology Questionnaire designed for the assessment of such disorders is presented and relevant studies using this questionnaire are discussed.
The authors present a Polish translation of the Y-BO CS together with a list of symptoms and a commentary on the scale construction and administration principles.
Schizophrenic patients' subjective feelings and attitudes towards their neuroleptic treatment are of importance to their short- and long-term prognosis. Particularly important is the effect of patients' attitudes on their compliance with treatment. The paper discusses the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) developed as a tool for the assessment of schizophrenic patients' attitudes towards their pharmacological treatment. On the grounds of the DAI scores their compliance with treatment may be predicted. The construction of DAI and research findings obtained using this scale are discussed. Besides, some comments are given concerning subjective response to treatment, defined here as an early psychophysiological response to therapy with neuroleptics.
The Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS), a new tool developed by Addington et al. for the assessment of depression in schizophrenia, is presented in the article. As compared to the Harmilton Scale, CDSS is more specific to depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. Successive stages of the CDSS development and verification are discussed (i.e. item analysis, reliability and validity studies), and a Polish adaptation of the tool is presented.
The authors present the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines algorithm for the treatment of schizophrenia as applied in clinical practice, referring to a case study of a female patient with the diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia.
Two cases of female patients hospitalized for catatonic syndromes are presented in terms of a traditional clinical description and of a new tool – the Bush-Francis Catatonia Scale. The study suggests clinical usefulness of the scale and encourages further investigation of its psychometric properties.
Hallucinations are a psychopathological symptom occurring in mental disorders of various etiology. Hallucinations are defined as perceptions occurring in absence of any external stimulus. Although they are often diagnosed and their phenomenological descriptions can be found in every handbook and classification, nevertheless their etiopathogenetic background is not quite clear. In the paper some lines of research conducted in the past or recently are presented. One approach is to seek neuroanatomical site of damage in the c.n.s., and biochemical changes resulting in occurrence of hallucinations. In another approach explanation is sought on the grounds of psychophysiological theories. Each of these research approaches provides evidence on the complexity and non-homogeneity of the hallucinations phenomenon. A question arises whether auditory hallucinations are the same phenomenon as hallucinations in other sense modalities, and whether it is possible to produce a single etiopathogenetic concept accounting for this psychopathological phenomenon as a whole.
On the grounds of articles published in the years 1993-1995 in eight most renowned English-language journals, an attempt was made to establish the main directions and methods of evaluation studies carried out in this field all over the world. The number of such publications has been systematically growing every year. In research reports outcome studies predominate, while there are relatively few papers devoted to the process of care. In the majority of publications the target of intervention are, above all, patients, in rather few studies – their families, and only occasionally – the staff, services or population. The most frequently investigated form of community intervention turned out to be sheltered housing, while very few studies dealt with either self-help or psychiatric services provision in primary care. In 40% of studies very correct methodological paradigms were used. More strict methodological criteria are observed in research on psychosocial methods than in that concerning community interventions. The object of evaluation are most often patients, and the usually used evaluative measures include psychopathology, consumption of services, and performance of social roles. "Subjective" measures are used only occasionally. A relatively frequent area of evaluation consists in health economics and family interventions. There are many tools available for measurement purposes. The majority of them differ from each other as regards operationalization of theoretical constructs. It is only the scales for the assessment of psychopathology that are quite commonly used.