Archives 1992-2013

1997, volume 6, suplement 1

Reviev article

Current picture of reactive syndromes

ADAM SZYMUSIK, Stanisław Teleśnicki
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 9-15

Various forms of reactive syndromes are discussed by the authors in a historical perspective. In the second part of the paper various types of reactive disorders are described, including prison psychoses. Current classifications, DSM-IV and ICD-10, have been also taken into account. In conclusions it is stated that typical reactive psychoses occur rather seldom nowadays, while depressive and anxiety syndromes, as well as hallucinatory-delusional syndromes are diagnosed more often. Reactive symptoms are noted presently in proceedings concerned with disability pensioning and indemnification more often than formerly.

Reviev article

– Basic principles of formulation of psychiatric expert opinions concerning accountability of the accused and their participation in penal proceedings – legal issues

LECH K. PAPRZYCKI
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 17-26

The paper is devoted to major legal issues pertaining to the formulation of psychiatric and psychological expert opinions for the needs of court penal proceedings. The following questions are discussed: conditions of admissibility of evidence from expert opinions in penal proceedings, conditions of admissibility of evidence from psychiatric-psychological opinion, and some more detailed issues, regarding the subject of a psychiatric opinion, qualifications of the expert psychiatrist, methods of examination, psychiatric observation, the opinion form and content, transactions of the court in proving evidence of this sort. In conclusions it is pointed out that for effective proving evidence from psychiatric-psychological opinion, a close co-operation and mutual understanding are necessary between court experts on the one hand, and judges and prosecutors on the other hand. Acquirement of working knowledge of the penal law and procedure by court experts, as well as of rudiments of psychiatry by lawyers is considered to be one of the most important conditions.

Reviev article

Ethical-deontological and legal-social issues in forensic psychiatry

Józef Kocur, ZDZISŁAW MAJCHRZYK, JÓZEF BUKOWSKI
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 27-30

Due to limited possibilities of rapid and regular transference of medical science advances onto the field of forensic psychiatry, ethical, legal, and social problems arise. Some of the latter, especially these connected with knowledge and moral attitudes of court experts, are discussed.

Reviev article

Reactive disorder s in disaster medicine as potential threat to legal order

Józef Kocur, WIESŁAWA TRENDAK, JÓZEF BUKOWSKI
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 31-33

Some medical and legal aspects of risks connected with sudden onset of reactive disorder s in disaster victims are outlined in the paper. Particular emphasis is laid upon factors impeding the formulation of forensic psychiatric expert opinions in disaster medicine.

Reviev article

Reactive disorder s in disaster medicine as potential threat to legal order

JÓZEF KRZYSZTOF GIEROWSKI
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 35-39

The paper presents possibilities of application of contemporary psychological knowledge, especially of the stress concept, in the diagnostics of reactive disorder s in psychiatric and psychological forensic expert opinions. Particular attention is paid to the effect of political transformations upon the pattern and onset of reactive disorder s, and to related problems in expert opinions formulation.

Reviev article

Possibilities of differential diagnosis of reactive states using the SUI test

JAN M. STANIK
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 41-54

The paper presents a new psychological test – SUI (Interpersonal Relations Scale, IRS), developed by the author. The scale allows to make a psychological diagnosis in terms of interpersonal functioning of personality. Assumptions underlying the test construction, normalization data, and principles of individual scores interpretation in the diagnostic practice are described. Moreover, the author's research results regarding three neuroses: hysteria, neurasthenia and depression are reported. The findings indicate a considerable usefulness of the test in psychological differential diagnosis of these neurotic disorders.

Reviev article

Post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD) and acute stress disorder ( ASD) as diagnostic alternatives to reactive conditions in forensic psychiatry

JANUSZ HEITZMAN
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 55-64

Contemporary opinions and approaches concerning reactive disorders are overviewed in the paper, with the focus on legal aspects. These problems are discussed both in their theoretical dimension, i.e. in terms of current modifications in the classification and definitions of reactive disorders, and in the practical aspect, regarding a lack of correspondence between the penal and civil code regulations and advances in modern psychiatry. Difficulties are analyzed ensuing in the court practice from the application of new concepts related to the picture of post-traumatic stress disorder in its acute and chronic form. It is emphasized that detailed, measurable diagnostic criteria should be used, which would allow to diagnose more often the acute (ASD) and chronic (PTSD) stress disorder in forensic psychiatric practice.

Reviev article

Reactive disorders and psychological defence reactions in the disabled

ZDZISŁAW MAJCHRZYK
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 65-73

Due to the complexity of defence attitudes, behaviors and reactions displayed by the disabled, the expert psychologist must analyze most carefully not only motives underlying prohibited acts committed by such persons, but also their defence reactions occurring after the act – in prison or during hospital observation. Moreover, the effect of defence reactions on disabled persons' ability to participate in court proceedings, as well as their accountability have to be taken into account.

Reviev article

An analysis of forensic experts' and physicians' contribution to opinions issued by the European Tribunal of Human Rights

JÓZEF BUKOWSKI, Józef Kocur
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 75-80

The Convention on Human Rights and Basic Freedoms constitutes an exemplary of effective protection of human rights in Europe. 236 opinions issued by the European Tribunal of Human Rights have been analyzed by the authors, who have drawn from their analysis conclusions relevant to medical practice.

Reviev article

Reactive disorders in HIV-infected prisoners serving long-term penalty of deprivation of liberty

TOMASZ SEREJKO, JERZY PRACUCIK, Wojciech Gruszczyński, EWA SEREJKO
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 81-83

Subjects in the study were 30 male HIV-infected prisoners serving long-term sentences. The cause of reactive depression in this sample was found to be not the long-term isolation, but a sudden deterioration of somatic health resulting from AIDS.

Reviev article

New, undesirable phenomena in psychiatric practice, noted in the course of forensic psychiatric opinions formulation

Danuta Hajdukiewicz
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 85-92

The author describes examples of undesirable behaviors of psychiatrist's in general psychiatric practice, affecting the image of the profession as perceived by the administration of justice and local community representatives. The following categories of such behaviors were distinguished: (l) submitting to pressures of persons against whom penal proceedings are conducted, (2) issuing certificates that either are beyond the competences of the psychiatrist not being a court expert, or have no confirmation in medical records, (3) inappropriate documentation of the patient's medical history, and (4) willful undertaking the forensic expert's actions without authorization by the court by which penal proceedings are instituted.

Reviev article

Reactive disorders in women serving prison sentence for homicide

Wojciech Gruszczyński, EDWARD BIELAWSKI, ANDRZEJ KOMOROWSKI
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 93-95

The authors present research results obtained from 20 female homicides serving the penalty of imprisonment. The average woman was 36 years old, with a blue-collar background, had an elementary education or basic vocational training, was a blue-collar worker, and lived in a large city. In the majority of cases (75%) personality disorders, neurosis or organic disorders were diagnosed. A half of the subjects suffered from chronic somatic conditions. In the course of imprisonment in a vast majority of cases reactive disorder s were found, predominantly episodic conditions in the form of adaptation disorders, and as regards reactive psychoses – depressive syndromes prevailed.

Reviev article

Some psychological theories explaining reactive behaviors in the disabled

ZDZISŁAW MAJCHRZYK
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 97-103

Some psychological theories (of labeling, Adler's theory of individual psychology and compensation), as well as difficult situations encountered by the disabled are outlined by the author. On the grounds of the presented theories and situations an attempt is made to explain defence behaviors and reactive disorders occurring in such persons in stressful circumstances, including imprisonment.

Reviev article

Changes in the picture of reactive mental disorders and their relation to the type of committed crime

ZDZISŁAW MAJCHRZY'K, TERESA GORDON, EWA SZABLEWSKA
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 105-112

Clinical patterns of reactive disorders are presented in selected groups of persons who committed prohibited acts in the years 1991-1995. The existing tendencies are analyzed and attention is drawn to some new determinants of reactive disorders onset, as well as to errors in diagnosing such disorders.

Reviev article

Criminological and psychopathological aspects of transgression of self-defence limits in forensic psychiatric opinions

HENRYK GÓRSKI, Antoni Florkowski
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 116-121

In the context of the distinguished in the penal code criminological, psychological and psychopathological determinants of the transgression of self-defence limits, as well as of legal and penal consequences of such an event, the authors point out to cases of disregarding by the administration of justice any individually differentiated situational decompensations and personality reactions or complicating reactive disorders. Moreover, not only mental status and psychomotor reactivity of the self-defending victim of lawless attempt are emphasized, but also health-related and important for the proceedings consequences of the so-called post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from the attempt.

Reviev article

Penal law characterization o f receiving stolen property under aggravating circumstances in the light o f a critical forensic psychiatric analysis

HENRYK GÓRSKI, Antoni Florkowski
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 123-126

Receiving stolen property under aggravating circumstances is discussed in terms of both its interpretation accepted in the penal code and the authors' observations from their many years' forensic psychiatric practice. Shortcomings of the interpretation and its elements incompatible with the present political and economic situation of the State are pointed out, as well as prosocial personality traits in many perpetrators of this offence. Besides, it is emphasized that many individuals are accidentally involved in prohibited acts of this sort. Thus, the socio-legal justifiability of the definition of receiving stolen property under aggravating circumstances is put to doubt, since offence of this type is not counterbalanced by any alternative privileged type.

Reviev article

Difficulties in the treatment and rehabilitation of reactive disorders (as exemplified by selected cases)

EWA BIZOŃ, URSZULA LUDWIKOWSKA
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 129-131

Difficulties in the treatment and rehabilitation of reactive disorders are discussed on the example of two selected forensic psychiatric opinions. A tendency to prolong proceedings in investigation cases and to carry out forensic psychiatric expertises mostly in the stage of preparatory proceedings is pointed out.

Reviev article

Views on the significance of results of supplementary examinations of the brain and their contribution to the accountability appraisal

Danuta Hajdukiewicz, MARIA GOŁĘBIEWSKA, JOANNA SKOWROŃSKA

The paper presents a review of the literature on the role of supplementary investigations of the brain in forensic psychiatric opinions. The majority of publications represent the standpoint that in the appraisal of accountability such data have an auxiliary role and should be interpreted in a close connection with the perpetrator's clinical status. It is not always the case in the practice of pronouncing expert opinions, which is exemplified by two forensic psychiatric opinions enclosed.

Reviev article

What ethical code of the expert psychiatrist?

JERZY POBOCHA
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1997, 6, suplement 1 (4), 143-148

The origins, specificity and difficulties in the development of the ethical code of expert psychiatrist are discussed. The author specified criteria that should be met by such a code, and potential beneficial consequences of its application by psychiatrists.