Kindling, regarded as an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, consists in gradually developing progressive limbic motor seizures due to repeated subthreshold electrical stimulation of certain brain regions or administration of proconvulsive chemical substances in subthreshold doses. It is a particularly interesting model, which can be used to study subsequent changes in animal behaviour, reflecting emotional disturbances observed among patients with epilepsy. The paper presents a review of various animal models of epilepsy used in the research into the mechanisms of seizures and action of antiepileptic drugs. Moreover, among major pathogenic mechanisms involved in the epileptic disorder the role of the glutamate or GABA system, and the function of Y neuropeptide or adenosine are discussed, with the emphasis on the phenomenon of the so-called long-term synaptic augmentation (LTP). The effect of kindling on animal behaviour was described (in rats) in order to better understand the nature of epilepsy-related disorders, including psychiatric disturbances in patients suffering from epilepsy.