2009 issue 3

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Volume 18, issue 3

Review

Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: diagnosis and treatment

Gabriela Bodzak-Opolska1
1. II Klinika Psychiatryczna Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii w Warszawie
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii 2009; 18 (3): 277-285
Keywords: premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Abstract

Objective. The aim of the paper is to outline risk factors, clinical picture, and treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), especially in the context of depressive symptoms.
Views. PMS/PMDD affect over 60% women of reproductive age. The importance of these conditions, disturbing and destabilizing active life, is underestimated. Hypotheses concerning PMS and PMDD pathomechanisms are discrepant, leading to very different treatment approaches. Research findings suggest that a considerable individualization of treatment is needed. The relatively best investigated method of pharmacological treatment, registered in some countries, involves SSRIs. However, due to a low efficacy of antidepressants in general, other treatments are introduced, including hormones, diet supplements, physical exercise, herbal drugs, and lifestyle modification.
Concłusion. Inconsistent conceptualization ofpathomechanisms underpinning PMS and PMDD results in diverse treatment approaches.

Address for correspondence:
Lek. Gabriela Bodzak-Opolska
II Klinika Psychiatryczna Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii
Al. Sobieskiego 9, 02-957 Warszawa
tel. 22-4582679