Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NAD) have rather strong analgesic and antifebrile effect. In neurology they are administered in the basic treatment of spinal pain syndromes and headaches. However, they have many undesirable side effects, sometimes resulting in serious complications. The major ones include: bleeding from the alimentary tract, aplastic and hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, damage to parenchymal organs, subjective and objective neurological disorders, as well as allergies. Moreover, the drugs in question are habit-forming. Increased tolerance leads to increased dosage, heightening the risk of side effects. The most frequent errors in NAD administration are the following: prolonged treatment, prescribing several NADs simultaneously, lack of knowledge about half-life time of the drug and its toxicity, prescribing severel drugs from the same group in succession, and disregarding counterindications, especially in the elderly. In lower back pain NADs are administered in any stage of the disease. In stage I one drug is ad-ministered for a short period. In stages II and III the treatment is somewhat longer and it should be associated with a physical treatment, while in the treatment of chronic pains – with antidepressants. In spontaneous headaches NAD may be applied in order to interrupt a migraine attack, and besides, as the drug of choice in chronic hemicranial attacks. NAD should be never administered in long-term treatment, e.g. in tension headaches.