The paper deals with disorders of higher mental processes which may be expected by the clinician in cerebral stroke patients. Symptoms of neuropsychological deficits are presented in relation to the locus of lesion in the brain, in the areas supplied by the main cerebral arteries. Aphasic syndromes are discussed in more detail, due to high prevalence rates of these disorders and their disabling sequelae. The complex problems of neuropsychological diagnosis and diagnostic difficulties are briefly outlined. The role of the neuropsychologist in the clinic of cerebrovascular diseases is signalized.