Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), all inflammatory disease of connective tissue, may affect also the nervous system (15-80% of cases). In the course of SLE a number of conditions are noted, including brain stroke, multi-infarct dementia, defects of cranial nerves, epileptic fits, extrapyramidal symptoms, polyneuropathies, and mental disorders. Among basic pathomechanisms of the nervous system impairment in SLE there are vascular dejects originating from immunological complexes accumulation in blood vessel walls. In SLE patients antiphospholipid antibodies are often found, contributing to arterial and venous thrombosis. The diagnosis of SLE as the cause of neurological disorders is of some prognostic value, since in the majority of cases an appropriate treatment results in the patients' clinical status amelioration and prolongation of their life expectancy.