1995 suplement 1


Volume 4, suplement 1

Original article

The Clock-Drawing Test

Stefan Krzymiński1
1. Wojewódzkiego Szpitala Specjalistycznego dla Nerwowo i Psychicznie Chorych w Ciborzu
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 1995, 4, suplement 1 (2), 21-30
Keywords: dementia, diagnostics, Clock-Drawing test, cognitive efficiency


Recent years have witnessed increased interest in the Clock-Drawing Test as a simple and reliable method of early detection of disturbed cognitive functioning in the elderly. Four versions of the test are presented, two proposed by Shulman et al. and those proposed by Sunderland et al. and Watson et al. All versions of the Clock-Drawing Test combine simplicity with high sensitivity and specificity with respect to diagnosis of disturbed cognitive efficiency. This test seems particularly useful as a selective diagnostic instrument for disturbed cognitive efficiency associated with the early stages of Alzheimer's disease when general cognitive efficiency has not yet reached the level of dementia.

Address for correspondence:
Dr Stefan Krzymiński,
Wojewódzki Szpital Specjalistyczny dla Nerwowo i Psychicznie Chorych,
66-212 Cibórz