57 pregnant patients at risk for premature delivery and 36 women threatened with post-term labor were assessed in terms of: anxiety level (using the Spielberger STAI), experienced fear and anxiety structure (the 5-factor Self-Cognition Inventory by R.S. Cattell), and personality structure (by means of WISKAD, the Polish adaptation of MMPI). In both groups of patients the state and trait anxiety levels were increased. Women at risk for premature birth were characterized by a higher level of the neurotic type anxiety resulting from their disharmonious personality. They also tended to employ more primitive defence mechanisms. In the post-term labor group the reactive type anxiety was found. These women were characterized by a more integrated personality and more effective anxiety control.