A brief description is presented of currently used methods of the cerebrospinal fluid cells densification for the purposes of cytological examination. Each of these methods is evaluated and the most recent technique developed in Rostock and Szczecin is presented. (ed.)
Knowledge on cytological diagnostics of the cerebrospinal fluid in acute vascular diseases of the brain and spinal cord is briefly overviewed in the paper. The sequence of cytological syndromes is discussed in cases of: (l) bleeding to the cerebra spinal fluid spaces, and (2) cerebral infarction foci. A number of data useful in everyday clinical practice are presented to the leader. (ed.)
Characteristic features of neoplastic cells occurring in the cerebrospinal fluid are described. The reasons for a much higher efficacy of the cerebrospinal fluid cytological examination in cases of metastatic tumors than in primary tumors of the CNS are discussed. Principles of neoplastic cells identification by means of monoclonal antibodies are outlined. (ed.)
Current views on the cerebrospinal fluid IgG changes in the course of some CNS diseases of immunological origin mostly, are overviewed. Changes in IgG subclasses are discussed, as well as the practical value of examination of oligoclonal bands within this immunoglobulin. (ed.)
Major issues concerning intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins, as well as the pathogenic mechanism underlying the onset of this process are dealt with in the paper. The application of intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins to the diagnostics of the nervous system diseases is discussed.
The paper presents basic facts concerning the DNA as a carrier of genetic information. Current views on mutation are outlined in more detail and principles of the DNA structure examination using various methods are explained. (ed.)
Genetic factors underlying the Duchenne-Becker muscular dystrophy are overviewed. The way of inheriting these types of dystrophy, as well as the role of mutations in their origin, are discussed. Moreover, possibilities of a genetic analysis of families suffering from the disease, and usefulness of prenatal examinations are shown. (ed.)
The nature of dynamic mutations, their presumable underlying mechanism, as well as their role in the pathogenesis of some degenerative diseases of the nervous system are discussed in the paper. More attention is devoted to amplification of selected trinucleotide sequences in several diseases. (ed.)
Gene therapy is one of the most rapidly developing branches of medicine. Gene therapy provides enormous possibilities of treatment of many acquired and inborn neurological conditions, in which a definite genetic defect has been identified. The application of specific vectors allows to introduce therapeutic genes into target cells by means of the ex vivo and in vivo methods. Since promising results have been obtained in animal models, it can be assumed that in the future the gene transfer therapy may be used in the treatment of parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease. In clinical trials using suicides' genes transfer and gancyclovire, regression of cerebral tumors has been noted. It may be hoped that in the future the gene transfer therapy will be a common method of neurological diseases prevention and treatment.
Atrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease resulting from degeneration of motor neurons in the CNS and spinal cord. In 5 to 20% of cases it is an autosomal dominating hereditary disease. About 20% of patients suffering from the familial atrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) have a point mutation in the gene coding copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD). The authors suggest that the major role both in the etiology and progression of the ALS falls to reactive forms of oxygen, while the CuZnSOD dysfunction is a factor predestinating to this disease development.
Numerous data suggest that cytokines play an important role in the multiple sclerosis pathophysiology, both through regulation of inappropriate immunological reactions and through mediation in myelin damage. The TNF-alpha, as one of the main mediators of the inflammatory reaction, plays and important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. The role of TNF-alpha in the multiple sclerosis is discussed in the paper.
Views on the pathogenesis of neurological paraneoplastic syndromes are presented, focusing on the role of antineuronal antibodies. A current classification of these antibodies is discussed, as well as methods of their identification in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Mechanisms probably involved in the damaging on the CNS in the course of paraneoplastic syndromes are described. Particular attention was paid to the practical aspects of knowledge on antineuronal antibodies, pertaining, above all, to the early diagnosis of the paraneoplastic syndrome and possibilities of its treatment.
Endothelin level was assessed in 21 patients soon after a cerebral stroke if either ischemic or hemorrhagic etiology. Relationship between endothelin levels on the one hand, and the type of stroke, its severity, and the presence of arterial hypertension, on the other hand, was analyzed. A significant increase in ET level was found in hemorrhagic strokes, strokes with a severe course and marked residual deficits, and in cases of concurrent arterial hypertension.
Continuing their study of 1993 on polyploidy in human cardiac muscle and on related phenomena in some other living organisms, the authors decided to investigate the phenomenon of polyploidy in cells of the CNS. Research findings reported by many authors, especially by Sandritter et al., tetraploidy (4c) is present in the Purkinje cells (in the cerebellum) and in pyramidal cells of the hippocampal gyrus, from the early stages of the ontogenic development until the end of life. According to the authors, this particular feature of the Purkinje cells (4c) may be related to their intense function. The cells are characterized by a lack of lipofucsine, and in pathological conditions no fat substances are deposited there. Moreover, the cells in question are highly sensitive to various noxious factors, such as hypoxia, alcohol or arsenic. They are the first to be affected by such harmful influences.