Gene therapy is one of the most rapidly developing branches of medicine. Gene therapy provides enormous possibilities of treatment of many acquired and inborn neurological conditions, in which a definite genetic defect has been identified. The application of specific vectors allows to introduce therapeutic genes into target cells by means of the ex vivo and in vivo methods. Since promising results have been obtained in animal models, it can be assumed that in the future the gene transfer therapy may be used in the treatment of parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease. In clinical trials using suicides' genes transfer and gancyclovire, regression of cerebral tumors has been noted. It may be hoped that in the future the gene transfer therapy will be a common method of neurological diseases prevention and treatment.