The paper presents spinal pathologies that occur in the course of same systemic connective tissue diseases and may lead to neurological complications. A special emphasis is laid on the cervical spine condition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, the type and character of changes in this respect are discussed in terms of risks resulting to the nervous system structures. Research findings obtained in the Rheumatological Institute in Warsaw indicate that the most severe neurological complications occurred in patients with the dens of the epistropheus invagination into the great foramen of the occipital bane, and a simultaneous horizontal subluxation of C1/C2 vertebrae (6.25% of RA cases). The problems of severe neurological complications prevention are also outlined.