The paper presents mechanisms underlying such neurodegenerative processes as accumulation of protein aggregates, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, metabolic compromise, apoptosis, and necrosis. The authors describe the multistage process of apoptosis, the PTPC channel role in the mitochondrial membrane, and the role of caspases in the mechanism of apoptosis. Attention is drawn to the role of dopamine in neurodegenerative processes. In the second part of the article therapeutic implications of the above-described mechanisms are discussed. In this respect of special importance may be not only the antagonization of excitotoxicity processes (where especially the NMDA glutaminergic receptor is involved), but also antioxidative therapy, as well as the use of neurotrophic factors and immunosuppressants. The new strategy is to inhibit apoptosis and protein aggregates accumulation.