2002 issue 1

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Volume 11, issue 1

Original articles

Does substance dependence result from an impairment of the mechani s m o f drive satisfaction (

WOJCIECH KOSTOWSKI1
1. Zakład Farmakologii i Fizjologii Układu Nerwowego Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii w Warszawie oraz Katedry i Zakładu Farmakologii Akademii Medycznej w Warszawie
Fostępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii, 2002, l, 9-22
Keywords: substance dependence, drives, drive satisfaction, reward, motivation

Abstract

Substance dependence is a complex brain disorder, characterised by the lass oj eontroi over drug seeking and drug taking behavior and by the risk oj relapse, even aftera prolonged period oj abstinence. This disorder may have its source in a disturbed balance oj drive-related behaviors that eontroi appetitive reactions aimed at seeking eontael with an addictive substance. The act oj consumption hecomes more and more attractive, and the behavior takes on compulsive character. According to the the01y proposed by Koob and LeMoal [2001], addiction is a disorder involving an allostatic mechanism defilzed as the process maintaining reward function mechanism with a permanent deviation oj the rewCll·d set point. We suppose that drug addiction may involve a change in the mechanism oj drive satisfaction and in the stale oj satiety as well. To understand how the motivational processes are changed with the development oj dependence one mus t consider the mechanism oj drive satisfaction and satiation states that occur in reiarion with the eonsumatory rejlex. When a given drive is satisfied t he state oj fulfilment e!lSlles. This state may be a re suit oj t he so-called .. antidrive" mechanism [Konarski 1967]. While the drive activity is characterised by generał activation and tension, the stale oj drive satisfaction (.,antidrive") is characterised by relaxation and relief When a partieu/ ar drive is satisfied the operatżon oj other drives hecomes possible. Therefore, we postulale that dysfunction oj drive satisfaction leads to the sustained activation related to the current drugrelated drive, which blocks the operatżon oj other drives. In effect, uncontrolled compulsive appetitive behavior (drug seeking) is released, and the operatżon oj other drives is restrained thus Jareing t he lO Wojciech Kostowski organism to focus on drug-related drive. The reason for the "antidrive" dysfunction may be related to adaptive changes that develop during a prolonged contact with an addictive substance.

Address for correspondence:
Adres: Prof Wojciech Kostowski,
Zakład Farmakologii i Fizjologii Układu Nerwowego Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii,
ul. Sobieskiego 9, 02-957 Warszawa