Aim – to present some more recent information concerning vascular dementia.
Review – Vascular dementia, an important cause or decline in the functioning of the elderly, is defined as an impairment of cognitive functions resulting from ischemic, ischemic-hypoxic, or hemorrhagic brain lesions. The diagnosis of vascular dementia requires cognitive impairment (often predominantly subcortical), vascular brain lesions demonstrated by imaging, and exclusion of other causes of dementia. Vascular dementia develops usually as a complication of multiple cortical and subcortical strokes, but sometimes is due to a single strategic stroke, multiple lacunes, or hypoperfusive lesions. Some forms of vascular dementia, such as e.g. the CADASIL, are determined by genetic factors. Interventions aimed at risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases play an important role in both primary and secondary prevention vascular dementia. Management of vascular dementia involves the treatment of atherosclerosis and its complications, as well as administration of anticholinergic medications in order to ameliorate the patients' cognitive functioning.