Aim. To present main methods of surgical intervention in the treatment of spasticity.
Review. Spasticity seems to be one of the major obstacles on the way to provide good nursing care and rehabilitation to patients with injuries of the central nervous system (CNS). The essential therapeutic procedures in spasticity are physiotherapy and drug therapy. Nevertheless, surgical treatment still remain useful in particular cases of severe, persistent spasticity with co-existent, undesirable complications like muscle and ligament contractures and various pain syndromes. Basic groups of surgical treatment methods are presented in the review: (1) surgical procedures on the spinal cord: myelotomies and cordectomies, (2) surgical procedures on the peripheral nervous system: posterior rhisotomy, damaging entry-areas of posterior nerve roots, anterior rhisotomy, cuts through nerve roots of cauda equina and peripheral nerves, (3) surgical procedures on ligaments and muscles: elongation of tendons and muscles, tenotomies, transitions of tendons.