Objectives. The paper presents a clinical unit that is rather little known, i.e. the Münchhausen syndrome by proxy, its diagnostics, and treatment difficulties.
Background. In this syndrome carers produce or elicit illness in others so as to obtain medical care. In a majority of cases a parent (almost always mother) is the perpetrator, while the child is a victim. The Münchhausen syndrome by proxy results in the child's severe condition, in some cases even leading to death. Medical staff members frequently are not acquainted with this disorder.
Conclusions. Early diagnosis of the Münchhausen syndrome by proxy might reduce the frequency of complications and deaths in cases with this syndrome.