Objectives. The aim of the article is to present current models of memory and their neurobiological and clinical aspects. The function of particular types of memory, their neuroantomical relations, as well as memory impairments in various neurological and psychiatric conditions are discussed.
Background. Memory was regarded as a uniform phenomenon in the past. At present numerous memory processes are recognized that depend on a variety of systems and neuroanatomical structures in the brain. Different types of memory, i.e. working, declarative (episodic and semantic) and non-declarative (procedural) memory can be distinguished. They are to a various extent susceptible to pathological factors and may be impaired in many neurological and psychiatric conditions.
Conclusions. Understanding the way of particular memory type functioning may help clinicians in the diagnostics and treatment of patients with memory disorders. Molecular-genetic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging research may bring the pathogenesis of memory disorders in different diseases to light.