Objectives. To discuss methods of assessment of adherence to medical recommendations, their respective accuracy and comparability.
Review. Available methods of measurement of compliance with medical recommendations are presented. Their advantages and limita-tions are discussed. Methodological flaws of compliance studies are outlined. The review includes objective, subjective, indirect and direct assessment methods.
Conclusions. There are many methods of compliance assessment, some very modern (using electronics and virtual reality), but none seems to deserve the name of a golden standard, being: reliable, not too intruding into the patient 's life, and free from biases typical of self-report techniąues. Certain compliance assessment methods may bepreferable to other ones in a specific clinical situation, but a combination of many methods increases the reliability and validity of obtained results.