Objectives. Co-occurrence of metabolic syndrome features and dementia was studied.
Methods. In 151 demented patients and 64 control individuals the presence of metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the modified Grundy et al. criteria (hypertension, obesity, high triglyceride and low high density lipopoprotein (HDL) cholesterol serum levels, as well as hyperglycemia). The serum insulin level was determined and the HOMA-IR index of insulin resistance was calculated. Polymorphic forms of a gene candidating for a role in the insulin signaling pathway – the glycogen-associated regulatory subunit 3 of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1R3), and of the apolipoprotein E gene - ε2, ε 3 and ε 4 alleles – which are well-known strong genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease - were identifi ed.
Results. Metabolic syndrome was found more often in the group with vascular dementia (VaD) than in the controls. In the former group a tendency for higher HOMA-IR index values was observed. The most frequent characteristic of glucose metabolism differing all the patients from the controls was an increased 2-hour postload glucose level, which is a feature of prediabetes. No differences between the patients and controls were found in the frequency of particular polymorphic forms of the PPP1R3 gene. Low HDL cholesterol levels and glucose intolerance – two important metabolic syndrome features - were signifi cantly more frequent only in the ε4 allele noncarriers, but not in the carriers of this allele.
Conclusions. Metabolic syndrome features were observed most often in patients with dementia of vascular origin. Frequency of these characteristics was higher only in noncarriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele.